A heat dissipation system apparatus and method of operation using hygroscopic working fluid for use in a wide variety of environments for absorbed water in the hygroscopic working fluid to be released to minimize water consumption in the heat dissipation system apparatus for effective cooling in environments having little available water for use in cooling systems. The system comprises a low-volatility, hygroscopic working fluid to reject thermal energy directly to ambient air. The low-volatility and hygroscopic nature of the working fluid prevents complete evaporation of the fluid and a net consumption of water for cooling, and direct-contact heat exchange allows for the creation of large interfacial surface areas for effective heat transfer. Specific methods of operation prevent the crystallization of the desiccant from the hygrosopic working fluid under various environmental conditions.
STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT
 This invention was made with government support under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-08NT43291 entitled "EERC-DOE Joint Program on Research and Development for Fossil Energy-Related Resources," awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The government has certain rights in the invention.