A device includes a back contact, an absorber layer coupled to the back contact, a buffer layer coupled to the absorber layer; and an amorphous transparent conductive layer coupled to the buffer layer, wherein the amorphous transparent conductive phase is characterized by, as a function of composition, i) a range of band gaps and ii) a range of work functions.
STATEMENT AS TO RIGHTS MADE UNDER FEDERALLY-SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT
 The United States Government has rights in this invention under Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 between the United States Department of Energy and the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC, the Manager and Operator of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This invention was made under a CRADA # CRD-03-121 between HelioVolt Corporation and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory operated for the United States Department of Energy.