Ionic conductive chromophores can be used as the positive electrolytes for high-energy density, nonaqueous redox flow battery (NRFB) systems. The nonaqueous nature of the NRFB systems allow for high operation voltage (compared to aqueous systems). Furthermore, the structure modifications to chromophores described herein improve the solubility of the resultant ionic conductive chromophores, thereby allowing them to be used in flow cell configurations.
STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT
 This invention was made with Government support under Contract DE-ACO576RLO1830 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in the invention.