Energy storage devices having hybrid anodes can address at least the problems of active material consumption and anode passivation that can be characteristic of traditional batteries. The energy storage devices each have a cathode separated from the hybrid anode by a separator. The hybrid anode includes a carbon electrode connected to a metal electrode, thereby resulting in an equipotential between the carbon and metal electrodes.
STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT
 This invention was made with Government support under Contract DE-AC0576RLO1830 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in the invention.