A method of making a microstructure includes forming a pattern in a surface of a silicon-containing elastomer, oxidizing the pattern, contacting the pattern with a substrate; and bonding the oxidized pattern and the substrate such that the pattern and the substrate are irreversibly attached. The silicon-containing elastomer may be removably attached to a transfer pad.
 The subject matter of this application was in part funded by the National Science Foundation (Grant no. CHE 0097096); by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA; Grant no. SPAWAR: N66001-98-1-8915); and by the Department of Energy (DOE Grant no. DEFG02-91ER45439). The government may have certain rights in this invention.