Condensation can he an important process in both emerging and traditional power generation and water desalination technologies. Superhydrophobic nanostructures can promise enhanced condensation heat transfer by reducing the characteristic size of departing droplets via a surface-tension-driven mechanism. A superhydrophobic surface can include nanostructures of a metal oxide having further surface modification.
 This invention was made with government support under Grant No. FA9550-11-1-0059 awarded by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research and under Grant Nos. DE-SC0001299 and DE-FG02-09ER46577 awarded by the Department of Energy. The government has certain rights in this invention."