Disclosed are devices that feature nanopores formed in graphene sheets, such as graphene ribbons. The graphene sheets include an edge irregularity, such as a zig-zag configuration, a chiral edge, or an armchair-configuration edge, which edges confer on the devices the ability to discriminate between different subunits of a macromolecule translocated through the nanpore. The disclosed devices and methods have application to DNA sequencing and analysis, among other applications.
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 This work was supported by Department of Energy Grant DE-FG02-07ER46374, by National Institutes of Health Grants R21HG004767 and R21HG006313, and by National Science Foundation grant TG-DMR100002.