Some embodiments of the present invention provide solid oxide cells and components thereof having a metal oxide electrolyte that exhibits enhanced ionic conductivity. Certain of those embodiments have two materials, at least one of which is a metal oxide, disposed so that at least some interfaces between the domains of the materials orient in a direction substantially parallel to the desired ionic conductivity.
STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY-SPONSORED RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
 This invention was made with government support awarded by the Department of Energy and administered by Oak Ridge National Laboratory/UT Battelle. The government has certain rights in the invention.