The present invention is directed to nanoscale fabrication of nano-materials with application in electronics, energy conversion, bio-sensing and others. Specifically, the invention is directed to arbitrary, that is periodic and non-periodic, assembly of nano-objects on I D and 2D arrays. The present invention utilizes self-organization properties of nanoscale bio-encoded building blocks, programmability of biomolecular interactions, and simple processing techniques for providing arbitrary by-design fabrication capability. Specifically, the present invention utilizes double stranded DNA attached to a surface and intercalating PNA-DNA hybrids attached to nano-objects to bind the nano-objects to the dsDNA in a site specific manner. The present invention allows for an integration of a large number of nano-components in unified well-defined systems. Accordingly, the present invention is applicable for fabrication of I D and 2D structures of various by-design placements of nano-objects of multiple types, including metal, semiconducting and organic nano-objects.
 The present invention was made with government support under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH 10886 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The United States government has certain rights in the invention.