The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase.
 This research was supported in part by Grant Nos. 92-37308-7471 and 583620-2-112 from the Department of Agriculture and Grant No. FG05-86ER3574 from the Division of Energy Biosciences in the Department of Energy.