A membrane electrode assembly (MEA) includes an ion exchange membrane having a polymer, and a first porous layer on its cathode side including a first material different from the polymer having at least one electroactive species providing a reduction potential between 0V and 1V vs. a standard hydrogen electrode at 25.degree. C. adsorbed thereto. A cathode catalyst is on the first porous layer, and an anode catalyst is on the anode side of the ion exchange membrane.
U.S. GOVERNMENT RIGHTS
 This invention was made with U.S. Government support under Florida Hydrogen Initiative contract #DEFC3604GO14225 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in the invention.