A method of forming a carbon and titanium containing composite that includes mixing a titanium-containing powder with carbon and forming the mixture of the titanium-containing-powder and carbon into a composite structure at a temperature of less than 1500.degree. C. The forming process provides a net shape having dimensions within 90% or greater than the final shape of the product. The binder of the composite is provided by the titanium, and the dispersed phase of the composite is provided by the carbon. The carbon and titanium containing composite may be employed as in applications including capacitive deionization (CDI), gas separation, chromatography, catalysis and electrode.
 This invention was made with government support under Contract Number DE-AC05-000R22725 between the United States Department of Energy and UT-Battelle, LLC. The U.S. government has certain rights in this invention.