Composite materials containing sulfurized polymers and sulfur-containing particles can be used in lithium-sulfur energy storage devices as a positive electrode. The composite material exhibits relatively high capacity retention and high charge/discharge cycle stability. In one particular instance, the composite comprises a sulfurized polymer having chains that are cross-linked through sulfur bonds. The polymer provides a matrix in which sulfide and/or polysulfide intermediates formed during electrochemical charge-discharge processes of sulfur can be confined through chemical bonds and not mere physical confinement or sorption.
STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT
 This invention was made with Government support under Contract DE-AC0576RLO1830 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in the invention.