Photovoltaic cells, methods of fabricating photovoltaic cells, and methods of using photovoltaic cells to capture light energy are provided. A photovoltaic cell can include an electron transporting layer, a photoactive layer, and a hole transporting layer. The electron transporting layer can be ultraviolet ozone treated. The photovoltaic cell can have an inverted configuration.
 The subject invention was made with government support under the Office of Naval Research, Contract No. N000141110245; the Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences, Contract No. DE-FG0207ER46464; and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Contract No. FA9550-09-1-0320. The government has certain rights to this invention.