A methodology for developing highly sensitive and selective sensors that can achieve portable, low-cost and quantitative detection of a broad range of targets using only a personal glucose meter (PGM) is disclosed. The method uses recognition molecules specific for a target agent, enzymes that can convert an enzyme substrate into glucose, and a PGM. Also provided are sensors, which can include a solid support having attached thereto a recognition molecule that permits detection of a target agent, as well as an enzyme that can catalyze the conversion of a substance into glucose, wherein the enzyme is attached directly or indirectly to the recognition molecule, and wherein in the presence of the target agent the enzyme can convert the substance into glucose. The disclosed sensors can be part of a lateral flow device. Methods of using such sensors for detecting target agents are provided.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF GOVERNMENT SUPPORT
 This invention was made with government support under DE-FG02-08ER64568 awarded by the US Department of Energy, under ES16865 awarded by the National Institutes of Health, and CTS-0120978 awarded by the National Science Foundation. The government has certain rights in the invention.