The present invention provides for a method of hydrolyzing a cellulose, hemicellulose, or ligno-cellulose comprising: (a) contacting (i) an ionic liquid (IL) or ionic liquid-aqueous (ILA) phase comprising cellulose, hemicellulose, or ligno-cellulose, or a mixture thereof, and (ii) an acid, such that the cellulose, hemicellulose, or ligno-cellulose is hydrolyzed into sugar, and (b) optionally adding water to the IL or ILA phase wherein the proportion of water in the IL or ILA phase does not exceed about 60% by weight. The present invention also provides for a method of recovering a sugar comprising contacting an IL or ILA phase and an organic phase comprising an organic acid.
STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENTAL SUPPORT
 The invention was made with government support under Contract Nos. DE-AC02-05CH11231 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The government has certain rights in the invention.