A photovoltaic structure including a nanocone-based three-dimensional interdigitated p-n junction is provided in the present invention. The three-dimensional p-n junction is at the interface between n-type oxide semiconductor nanocones and a p-type semiconductor material that functions as a matrix embedding the nanocones. The nanocone-based three-dimensional p-n junction allows efficient minority carriers being extracted from photo-absorber and crossing across the p-n junction, and generates completely-depleted regions throughout the nanocones and the matrix around the nanocones for efficient charge collection. Further, the bandgap energies of the p-doped semiconductor material can be tuned to match the solar light spectrum by mixing related elements. Further, the high temperature pulses can be used to remove defects in the junction interfaces and sintering nanoparticle matrix.
STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT
 This invention was made with government support under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The government has certain rights in this invention.