Provided herein are biomedical devices and methods of making and using biomedical devices for sensing and actuation applications. For example, flexible and/or stretchable biomedical devices are provided including electronic devices useful for establishing in situ conformal contact with a tissue in a biological environment. The invention includes implantable electronic devices and devices administered to the surfaces(s) of a target tissue, for example, for obtaining electrophysiology data from a tissue such as cardiac, brain tissue or skin.
STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT
 This invention was made with United States governmental support from The U.S. Department of Energy under Award No. DEFG02-91 ER45439, the National Science Foundation under grant DMI-0328162, the U.S. Department of Energy under Award No. DE-FG02-07ER46471, the U.S. Army Research Laboratory and the U.S. Army Research Office under contract number W911 NF-07-1-0618, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) under Award Nos. RO1-NS041811-04 and RO1-NS48598-01 and by the DARPA-DSO and the National Institutes of Health P41 Tissue Engineering Resource Center under award number P41 EB002520. The U.S. Government has certain rights in the invention.