The disclosure is directed to nanoparticles used in creating nanostructure complexes in the presence of divalent cations. In particular, the disclosure is directed to nanoparticles that are coated with zwitterions and linker portions in a manner that facilitates nanostructure complex assembly while reducing or preventing non-specific spontaneous aggregation of nanoparticle in the presence of divalent cations. The disclosure also provides a method for preparing a nanoparticle coating of the present invention. Furthermore, the disclosure provides a method for assembling nanostructure complexes using coated nanoparticles with a scaffold.
STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT RIGHTS
 This invention was made with Government support under contract number DE-AC02-98CH10886, awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in the invention.