Photochemical tissue bonding methods include the application of a photosensitizer to a tissue and/or tissue graft, followed by irradiation with electromagnetic energy to produce a tissue seal. The methods are useful for tissue adhesion, such as in wound closure, tissue grafting, skin grafting, musculoskeletal tissue repair, ligament or tendon repair and corneal repair.
STATEMENT OF RIGHTS TO INVENTIONS MADE UNDER FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH
 This work was supported by the government, in part, by Grant Award Nos. N00014-94-1-0927, F49620-01-1-0014, DAMD17-02-2-0006, DE-FG02-91ER61228 and N000149910617. The Grants were awarded by the U.S. Department of the Air Force, the U.S. Department of the Navy, the U.S. Department of the Army, and the U.S. Department of Energy. The government has certain rights to this invention.