An embodiment of a heat transfer interface includes a solid material having first and second surfaces, and a nanotube forest covering at least a portion of the first surface, In operation in a heat exchanger, the heat transfer interface transmits heat from a first side to a second side of the heat transfer interface. An embodiment of a method of improving heat transfer in a heat exchanger includes applying a nanotube forest to a heat transfer surface of a heat transfer interface and installing the heat transfer interface in the heat exchanger.
STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT SUPPORT
 This invention was made with government support under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The government has certain rights in this invention.