In one aspect of the present invention, a photovoltaic device having a down-converting layer is presented. The device includes a glass plate having a first surface and a second surface. The first surface is exposed to ambient radiation. A transparent conductive layer is disposed adjacent to the second surface of the glass plate. The device further includes a first type semiconductor layer disposed adjacent to the transparent conductive layer and a second type semiconductor layer disposed adjacent to the first type semiconductor layer. The down-converting layer is interposed between the second surface of the glass plate and the transparent conducting layer. The down-converting layer exhibits an effective refractive index that has a value between the respective refractive indices of the glass plate and the transparent conductive layer. A photovoltaic module having a plurality of such photovoltaic devices is also presented.
STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
 This invention was made with Government support under contract number DE-EE0000568 awarded by Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in the invention.