A valve seat insert operable with a valve to selectively open and close a passage to a cylinder in an internal combustion engine. The valve seat insert includes a cobalt alloy base including at least about 40 wt % Co and at least about 5 wt % Cr. An oxide scale coating is disposed on at least a wear face of the valve seat insert adapted to engage the valve and optionally on a portion of the valve.
STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
 This disclosure was made in part with Government support under CRADA NFE-07-00995 between Caterpillar Inc. and UT-Battelle, LLC under its Prime Contract with the U.S. Department of Energy for the operation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The Government may have certain rights in this disclosure.