An optoelectronic structure, and method of fabricating same, comprised of semiconductors having growth-embedded void-gap gratings or photonic crystals in one or two dimensions, which are optimized to yield high interaction of the guided light and the photonic crystals and planar epitaxial growth. Such structure can be applied to increase light extraction efficiency in LEDs, increase modal confinement in lasers or increase light absorption in solar cells. The optimal dimensions of the growth-embedded void-gap gratings or photonic crystals are calculated by numerical simulation using scattering matrix formalism. The growth-embedded void-gap gratings are applicable to any semiconductor device, as well as optoelectronic devices, such as light-emitting diodes, laser diodes and solar cells.
STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
 This invention was made with Government support under Grant No. DE-FC26-06NT42857 awarded by the Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in this invention.