The invention provides for a composition comprising a genetically engineered bacteriophage capable of guiding cell growth and polarization via signaling peptides and directionally aligned structures. The invention provides for modified bacteriophage and its uses thereof. The present invention also provides for genetically engineered phage capable of guiding cell growth, migration and/or alignment, providing essential biological effects including proliferation and/or differentiation, which can be performed by expressing specific biological motifs, such as the amino acid sequences RGD, IKVAV, DGEA and HPQ, on their coat proteins, on which functional DNA, proteins and cells can be conjugated and/or fixed thereon.
STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENTAL SUPPORT
 The invention described and claimed herein was made in part utilizing funds supplied by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. The government has certain rights in this invention.