An impedance analysis system for characterizing an energy storage device (ESD) includes a signal vector assembler to generate a signal vector from a composition of one or more waveforms and a signal generator for generating a stimulus signal responsive to the signal vector. A signal measurement device measures a response signal indicative of a response of the ESD substantially simultaneously with when the stimulus signal is applied to the energy storage device. A load variation monitor monitors load variations on the energy storage device due to operational circuitry coupled thereto. An analyzer is operably coupled to the response signal and analyzes the response signal relative to the signal vector to determine an impedance of the energy storage device.
STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT
 This invention was made with government support under Contract No. DE-AC07-05ID14517 awarded by the United States Department of Energy. The government has certain rights in the invention.