An electromagnetic field generator includes a semiconductive material shaped to form a complex electromagnetic field including a magnetic field and an electric field. An instrument includes a passage configured such that charged particle may travel therein, and a semiconductive material configured to form a complex electromagnetic field that is configured to control motion of the charged particles within the passage. Another instrument includes a housing defining a chamber, and an electromagnetic field generator within the chamber that comprises a material configured to form an electric field component of an electromagnetic field, and a material configured to form a magnetic field component of the electromagnetic field. A method of controlling motion of charged particles includes controlling motion of at least one charged particle by forming a complex electromagnetic field with a semiconductive material that is shaped to form the complex electromagnetic field.
 This invention was made with government support under Contract Number DE-AC07-05ID14517 awarded by the United States Department of Energy. The government has certain rights in the invention.