The present invention provides a photovoltaic cell, which is contained within a photonic crystal structure. The photonic crystal is at least two-dimensional, and contains defects to guide incident light, e.g., sunlight, into a crystal cavity, where the concentrated light is guided into a cavity, preferably a photonic optical cavity, which is also a photovoltaic region comprising a semiconductor heterojunction for forming a photovoltaic current.
STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENTAL SUPPORT
 This invention was made with U.S. Government support under Contract Number DE-AC02-05CH11231 between the U.S. Department of Energy and The Regents of the University of California for the management and operation of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The U.S. Government has certain rights in this invention.