Nanoscale high-aspect-ratio metallic structures and methods are presented. Such structures may form transparent electrode to enhance the performance of solar cells and light-emitting diodes. These structures can be used as infrared control filters because they reflect high amounts of infrared radiation. A grating structure of polymeric bars affixed to a transparent substrate is used. The sides of the bars are coated with metal forming nanowires. Electrodes may be configured to couple to a subset of the rails forming interdigitated electrodes. Encapsulation is used to improve transparency and transparency at high angles. The structure may be inverted to facilitate fabrication of a solar cell or other device on the back-side of the structure. Multiple layered electrodes having an active layer sandwiched between two conductive layers may be used. Layered electro-active layers may be used to form a smart window where the structure is encapsulated between glass to modify the incoming light.
STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
 This invention was made in part with Government support under Grant Numbers DE-ACO2-07CH11358 awarded by the Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in this invention.