A process including providing a reactant, the reactant coming into contact with a first material and chemically reacting therewith to form a first compound and produce structured particles is provided. In some instances, second material particles are at least partially coated with the first compound. The first material can contain a transition metal and the reactant can be provided to an afterglow region of a plasma and/or be provided downstream from the afterglow region. The reactant can contain an element such as oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, fluorine, carbon, boride, chloride, and the like. In addition, the reactant can be a gas and the first compound can be an oxide, nitride, sulfide, phosphide, fluoride, carbide, boride, chloride, and/or combinations thereof.
 This invention was made with government support under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The government has certain rights in the invention.