A nanorod is disclosed. It includes a linear body including three or less alternating regions including a first region and a second region, wherein the first region comprises a first material comprising a first ionic material and the second region comprises a second material comprising a second ionic material.
STATEMENT AS TO RIGHTS TO INVENTIONS MADE UNDER FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT
 The invention described and claimed herein was made in part utilizing funds supplied by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231. The government has certain rights in this invention.