The present invention provides for a graphene device comprising: a first gate structure, a second gate structure that is transparent or semi-transparent, and a bilayer graphene coupled to the first and second gate structures, the bilayer graphene situated at least partially between the first and second gate structures. The present invention also provides for a method of investigating semiconductor properties of bilayer graphene and a method of operating the graphene device by producing a bandgap of at least 50 mV within the bilayer graphene by using the graphene device.
STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT SUPPORT
 This invention was made with government support under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The government has certain rights in this invention.