The nanoscale architecture of anode materials and the process for forming an anode for a lithium ion battery is provided along with an apparatus. The anodes comprise aligned nanorods of metals which are formed on metallic substrates. When used as the anodes in a lithium-ion battery, the resulting battery demonstrates higher energy storage capacity and has greater capability to accommodate the volume expansion and contraction during repeated charging and discharging.
STATEMENT AS TO RIGHTS TO INVENTIONS MADE UNDER FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
 This invention was made with Government support under Contract No. DE-AC09-08SR22470 awarded by the United States Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in the invention.