Assays useful in determining exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are provided. In one aspect, the MWCNT exposure assays operate by detecting a significant increase in the expression levels and/or status of certain cytokines shown to be responsive to MWCNT exposure.
STATEMENT AS TO RIGHTS TO INVENTIONS MADE UNDER FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT
 This invention was made with government support under Contract No. DE-AC52-06 NA 25396 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The government has certain rights in the invention.