Multiple stacks of tubular electrochemical cells having a dense electrolyte disposed between an anode and a cathode preferably deposited as thin films arranged in parallel on stamped conductive interconnect sheets or ferrules. The stack allows one or more electrochemical cell to malfunction without disabling the entire stack. Stack efficiency is enhanced through simplified gas manifolding, gas recycling, reduced operating temperature and improved heat distribution.
STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT
 This invention was made with government support under Grant (Contract) No. DE-AC03-76F00098 awarded by The United States Department of Energy. The government has certain rights to this invention.