Disclosed are solid titanium-free Fischer-Tropsch catalysts including iron homogeneously modified with a zirconium promoter/stabilizer. The homogeneously mixed solid catalysts can be formed through co-precipitation of iron and zirconium precursors followed by calcination and reduction to form the active catalyst materials. The catalysts can optionally include additional materials such as copper, potassium, and silicon promoters.
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 The United States Government may have rights in this disclosure pursuant to grants provided by the National Association of State Energy Offices (grant no. DE-FC36-03G013026).