Provided herein are methods for manufacturing lithium-metal anode  assemblies for thin-film, thick-film and hulk secondary batteries that use liquid or gel-type electrolytes , and lithium-metal anode  assemblies for thick-film and bulk secondary batteries that use solid electrolytes . These methods involve electrolytic formation of a lithium metal anode  between a protecting lithium-stable, solid electrolyte  material and an eieethcaiiy-Gonductive substance . Secondary lithium_ batteries made by these methods aw also provided.
CONTRACTUAL ORIGIN OF THE INVENTION
 The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC36-99GO10337 between the United States Department of Energy and the Renewable Energy Laboratory, a Division of the Midwest Research Institute.