Nanolaminate materials are composites that consist of alternating layers of different materials (often conducting and insulating materials) that are manufactured by repeated sputter coating of a flat substrate. The layers can be exceedingly thin--on the order of a few atomic layers up to hundreds of nanometers. When the composite is cut perpendicular to the planes of these layers, a surface results that along one dimension has closely spaced alternating stripes of the materials. This patterned surface is incorporated into electrochemical and electrophoretic devices. The device may be positioned such that sample fluid may pass horizontally or vertically relative to the exposed closely spaced stripes. Such a device may be constructed to use an array of discrete conducting layers to define a voltage gradient so as to perform electrophoretic transport in a narrow fluid channel with one surface defined by the nanolaminate material.
 The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. W-7405-ENG-48 between the United States Department of Energy and the University of California for the operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.