Nanolaminate materials are composed of alternating layers of two materials, such as conducting and insulating materials, that are synthesized by sputter coating on a flat substrate with a large number of layers. By employing lithographic processing during the deposition process, it is possible to make separate electrical contact to specific subsets of the metallic layers in the composite nanolaminate. Any number of separate electrodes is possible, in principle. This allows for multiple electrochemical circuits for simultaneous cyclic voltammetry in a single detection electrophoretic channel. The improvement allows for electrophoretic flow of 1 electrolyte and the electrochemical detection and discrimination of various analyte particles. The microfluidic component can be incorporated in a device for the purpose of analyzing or performing a chemical or biological assay on a very small fluid electrolyte, such as water. Such devices can be used as pathogen detectors.
 The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. W-7405-ENG-48 between the United States Department of Energy and the University of California for the operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.