Methods of producing one or more polypeptides in a plant chloroplast, including methods of producing polypeptides that specifically associate in a plant chloroplast to generate a functional protein complex, are provided. An isolated polynucleotide that includes (or encodes) a first ribosome binding sequence (RBS) operatively linked to a second RBS, such that the first RBS directs translation of a polypeptide in a prokaryote and the second RBS directs translation of the polypeptide in a chloroplast, also is provided, as is a vector containing such a polynucleotide, particularly a chloroplast vector and a chloroplast/prokaryote shuttle vector. Also provided is a synthetic polynucleotide, which is chloroplast codon biased. A plant cell that is genetically modified to contain a polynucleotide or vector as described above, as well as transgenic plants containing or derived from such a genetically modified cell, are provide. Polypeptides encoded by a synthetic polynucleotide as described also are provided.
 This invention was made in part with government support under Grant No. GM54659 awarded by the National Institutes of Health, Grant No. DE-FG03-93ER20116 awarded by the Department of Energy, and Grant No NA06RG00142 awarded by the California Sea Grant college program of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The government may have certain rights in this invention.