This invention pertains to methods of imparting information onto nucleic acid sequences. In specific embodiments, the present invention provides site-specific recombinase systems and error-prone polymerase systems to alter nucleotide sequences such as DNA and mini-genomes, as well as for the production of microarrays. The present invention also provides methods of analyzing the modified nucleotides sequences provided herein. Methods of engineering and screening for novel modified polymerases that incorporate chain terminating nucleotides and/or labeled nucleotides more efficiently than wild-type polymerases are also provided.
 This invention was funded by DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-87ER60565 from the U.S. Department of Energy, and by DARPA Grant No. F3062-01-20586 from the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The U.S. Government may have certain rights in this invention.